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Glossary

Glossary of financial services industry terms as used in the quarterly, half yearly and annual reports

 

  # A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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1|2|3 World 
 

1|2|3 World is the marketing name to describe customers that hold a 1|2|3 Current Account, 1|2|3 Lite Current Account, Select Current Account, Private Current Account, 1|2|3 Student / Graduate / Post-Graduate Current Account, 1|2|3 Mini Current Account or 1|2|3 Credit Card. Customers in 1|2|3 World have access to a range of products with preferential rates and / or special deals such as cashback. 
 

A
 

 

Arrears
 

Customers are said to be in arrears when they are behind in fulfilling their obligations with the result that an outstanding loan is unpaid or overdue. Such a customer is also said to be in a state of delinquency. When a customer is in arrears, his entire outstanding balance is said to be delinquent, meaning that delinquent balances are the total outstanding loans on which payments are overdue.
 

Asset Backed Securities (ABS)
 

Securities that represent an interest in an underlying pool of referenced assets. The referenced pool can comprise any assets which attract a set of associated cash flows but are commonly pools of residential or commercial mortgages but could also include leases, credit card receivables, motor vehicles or student loans.
 

B
 

 

UK Bank Levy
 

The government levy that applies to certain UK banks, UK building societies and the UK operations of foreign banks from 1 January 2011. The levy is payable based on a percentage of the chargeable equity and liabilities of the bank at the balance sheet date. 
 

Banking NIM

Banking net interest margin. Net interest income divided by average customer assets.
 

Basel III
 

In December 2010, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision issued the Basel III rules text, which presents the details of strengthened global regulatory standards on bank capital adequacy and liquidity. The standards were implemented in the EU in January 2014. 
 

Basis point
 

One hundredth of a per cent (i.e. 0.01%), so 100 basis points is 1%. Used in quoting movements in interest rates or yields on securities.
 

Business Banking
 

Division, managed under Retail Banking, serving enterprises with a turnover of up to £6.5m per annum. 
 

C

 

Colleague engagement

Colleague engagement is measured on annual basis in the Group Engagement Survey (GES), conducted by Korn Ferry for Banco Santander. Results are benchmarked against other firms in the UK financial sector and other high performing firms.
 

Collectively assessed loan impairment provisions

Impairment losses assessment on a collective basis for loans that are part of homogeneous pools of similar loans and that are not individually significant, using appropriate statistical techniques. See ‘Impairment of financial assets’ in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
 

Commercial Paper

An unsecured promissory note issued to finance short-term credit needs. It specifies the face amount paid to investors on the maturity date. Commercial paper can be issued as an unsecured obligation of Santander UK and is usually issued for periods ranging from one week up to nine months. However, the depth and reliability of some CP markets means that issuers can repeatedly roll over CP issuance and effectively achieve longer term funding. CP can be issued in a range of denominations and can be discounted or interest-bearing.
 

Commercial Real Estate (CRE)

Lending to UK customers, primarily on tenanted property assets, with a focus on the office, retail, industrial and residential sectors.
 

Common Equity Tier 1 (CET1) capital

The called-up share capital and eligible reserves less deductions calculated in accordance with the CRD IV implementation rules as per the PRA Policy Statement PS7/13. CET1 capital ratio is CET1 capital as a percentage of risk-weighted assets.
 

CET1 capital ratio

CET1 capital as a percentage of risk weighted assets.
 

Contractual maturity

The final payment date of a loan or other financial instrument, at which point all the remaining outstanding principal will be repaid and interest is due to be paid.
 

Corporate customer satisfaction
 

Measured by the Charterhouse UK Business Banking Survey, an ongoing telephone based survey designed to monitor usage and attitude of UK businesses towards banks. 17,000 structured telephone interviews are conducted each year among businesses of all sizes from new start-ups to large corporates with annual sales of £1bn. 
 

Corporates

The sum of enterprises served by our Business Banking, Commercial Banking and Global Corporate Banking divisions.
 

Cost-to-income ratio

Total operating expenses as a percentage of total income.
 

Coverage ratio

Impairment loss allowances as a percentage of total non-performing loans and advances. See non-performing loans and advances tables in the Risk review for industry specific definitions of individual products.
 

Covered bonds

Debt securities backed by a portfolio of mortgages that is segregated from the issuer’s other assets solely for the benefit of the holders of the covered bonds. The Santander UK group issues covered bonds as part of its funding activities.
 

Credit Default Swap (CDS)

A credit derivative contract where the protection seller receives premium or interest-related payments in return for contracting to make payments to the protection buyer in the event of a defined credit event. Credit events normally include bankruptcy, payment default on a reference asset or assets, or downgrades by a rating agency.
 

Credit spread

The yield spread between securities with the same coupon rate and maturity structure but with different associated credit risks, with the yield spread rising as the credit rating worsens. It is the premium over the benchmark or risk-free rate required by the market to accept a lower credit quality.
 

Credit Valuation Adjustment (CVA)

Adjustments to the fair values of derivative assets to reflect the creditworthiness of the counterparty. 
 

Capital Requirements Directive IV (CRD IV)

An EU legislative package covering prudential rules for banks, building societies and investment firms.
 

Currency swap

An arrangement in which two parties exchange specific principal amounts of different currencies at inception and subsequently interest payments on the principal amounts. Often, one party will pay a fixed interest rate, while the other will pay a floating exchange rate (though there are also fixed-fixed and floating-floating arrangements). At the maturity of the swap, the principal amounts are usually re-exchanged.
 

Current Account Switch Service (CASS) guarantee

On 16 September 2013, Bacs (previously Payments Council) launched CASS. The service is free-to-use for consumers, small charities, small businesses and small trusts, and is designed to make switching current accounts from one bank or building society to another, simpler, reliable and hassle-free, thus removing customers’ perceived barriers to switching. The new service is backed by a customer guarantee and aims to increase competition in the high street, support the entry of new banks in the current account marketplace and give customers greater choice if they want to switch. 
 

Customer loans / customer deposits

Money lent to or deposited by all individuals and companies that are not credit institutions. Such funds are predominantly recorded as assets and liabilities in the balance sheet under Loans and advances to customers and Deposits by customers, respectively.
 

Customer funding gap

Customer loans less customer deposits.
 

Customer satisfaction

See ‘Corporate customer satisfaction’ and ‘Retail customer satisfaction’.
 

 D

 

Debt restructuring

This occurs when the terms and provisions of outstanding debt agreements are changed. This is often done in order to improve cash flow and the ability of the borrower to repay the debt. It can involve altering the repayment schedule as well as reducing the debt or interest charged on the loan.
 

Debt securities

Transferable instruments creating or acknowledging indebtedness. They include debentures, bonds, certificates of deposit, notes and commercial paper. The holder of a debt security is typically entitled to the payment of principal and interest, together with other contractual rights under the terms of the issue, such as the right to receive certain information. Debt securities are generally issued for a fixed term and redeemable by the issuer at the end of that term. Debt securities can be secured or unsecured.
 

Debt securities in issue

Transferable certificates of indebtedness of the Santander UK group to the bearer of the certificates. These are liabilities of the Santander UK group and include commercial paper, certificates of deposit, bonds and medium-term notes.
 

Defined benefit obligation

The present value of expected future payments required to settle the obligations of a defined benefit plan resulting from employee service.
 

Defined benefit plan

A pension plan that defines an amount of pension benefit to be provided, usually as a function of one or more factors such as age, years of service or compensation. The employer's obligation can be more or less than its contributions to the fund.
 

Defined contribution plan

A pension plan under which the Santander UK group pays fixed contributions as they fall due into a separate entity (a fund) and will have no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions, i.e. the employer's obligation is limited to its contributions to the fund.
 

Delinquency

See ‘Arrears’.
 

Deposits by banks

Money deposited by banks and other credit institutions. They include money-market deposits, securities sold under repurchase agreements, and other short-term deposits. Such funds are recorded as liabilities in the Santander UK group’s balance sheet under Deposits by Banks, Trading Liabilities or Financial Liabilities designated at Fair Value.
 

Derivative

A contract or agreement whose value changes with changes in an underlying index such as interest rates, foreign exchange rates, share prices or indices and which requires no initial investment or an initial investment that is smaller than would be required for other types of contracts with a similar response to market factors. The principal types of derivatives are: swaps, forwards, futures and options.
 

Digital customers

Digital customers reflect the number of customers who have logged onto Retail or Business online banking or mobile app at least once in the month. 
 

Distributable items

Equivalent to distributable profits under the Companies Act 2006.
 

Dividend payout ratio

Equity dividend declared as a percentage of earnings attributable to ordinary shareholders (profit after tax less payment of dividend on equity accounted instruments and non-controlling interests).
 

 E

 

Economic capital

An internal measure of the minimum equity and preference capital required for the Santander UK group to maintain its credit rating based upon its risk profile.
 

Expected loss

The Santander UK group measure of anticipated loss for exposures captured under an internal ratings-based credit risk approach for capital adequacy calculations. It is measured as the Santander UK group-modelled view of anticipated loss based on Probability of Default, Loss Given Default and Exposure at Default, with a one-year time horizon.
 

Exposure

The maximum loss that a financial institution might suffer if a borrower, counterparty or group fails to meet their obligations or assets and off-balance sheet positions have to be realised.
 

Exposure at default (EAD)

The estimation of the extent to which the Santander UK group may be exposed to a customer or counterparty in the event of, and at the time of, that counterparty’s default. At default, the customer may not have drawn the loan fully or may already have repaid some of the principal, so that exposure is typically less than the approved loan limit.
 

 F

 

Fair value adjustment

An adjustment to the fair value of a financial instrument which is determined using a valuation technique (level 2 and level 3) to include additional factors that would be considered by a market participant that are not incorporated within the valuation model.
 

Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)

A UK quasi-governmental agency formed as one of the successors to the Financial Services Authority (FSA). The FCA regulates financial firms providing services to UK consumers and maintains the integrity of the UK’s financial markets. It focuses on the regulation of conduct by both retail and wholesale financial services firms.
 

Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS)

The UK’s statutory fund of last resort for customers of authorised financial services firms, established under the Financial Services and Markets Act (FSMA) 2000. The FSCS can pay compensation to customers if a UK PRA authorised firm is unable, or likely to be unable, to pay claims against it (for instance, an authorised bank is unable to pay claims by depositors). The FSCS is funded by levies on firms authorised by the PRA, including Santander UK plc and other members of the Santander UK group.
 

First/Second Charge

First charge (also known as first lien): debt that places its holder first in line to collect compensation from the sale of the underlying collateral in the event of a default on the loan. Second charge (also known as second lien): debt that is issued against the same collateral as a higher charge debt but that is subordinate to it. In the case of default, compensation for this debt will only be received after the first charge has been repaid and thus represents a riskier investment than the first charge.
 

Follow-on Rate (FoR)

A mortgage product that tracks and is directly linked to the Bank of England base rate.
 

Forbearance

Forbearance takes place when a concession is made on the contractual terms of a loan in response to an obligor’s financial difficulties.
 

Full time equivalent

Full time equivalent employee units are the on-job hours paid for employee services divided by the number of ordinary-time hours normally paid for a full-time staff member when on the job (or contract employee where applicable).
 

Funded/unfunded

Exposures where the notional amount of the transaction is either funded or unfunded. Represents exposures where a commitment to provide future funding has been made and the funds have been released/not released.
 

Funding for Lending Scheme (FLS)

A scheme designed by the Bank of England and HM Treasury to incentivise banks and building societies to boost their lending to UK households and non-financial companies. It aims to do this by providing funding to banks and building societies for an extended period, with both the price and quantity of funding provided linked to their performance in lending to the UK non-financial sector.
 

 H

 

Home loan (Residential mortgage)

A loan to purchase a residential property which is then used as collateral to guarantee repayment of the loan. The borrower gives the lender a lien against the property and the lender can foreclose on the property if the borrower does not repay the loan per the agreed terms. Also known as a residential mortgage.
 

 I

 

Impaired loans

Loans where the Santander UK group does not expect to collect all the contractual cash flows or to collect them when they are contractually due.
 

Impairment loss allowance (Loan loss allowance)

An impairment loss allowance held on the balance sheet as a result of the raising of a charge against profit for the incurred loss in the lending book. An impairment loss allowance may be either identified or unidentified and individual or collective.
 

Impairment losses

The raising of a charge against profit for the incurred loss inherent in the lending book following an impairment review. For financial assets carried at amortised cost, impairment losses are recognised in the income statement and the carrying amount of the financial asset or group of financial assets is reduced by establishing an allowance for impairment losses. For available-for- sale financial assets, the cumulative loss including impairment losses is removed from equity and recognised in the income statement.
 

Individually assessed loan impairment provisions

Impairment is measured individually for assets that are individually significant. For these assets, the Santander UK group measures the amount of the impairment loss as the difference between the carrying amount of the asset or group of assets and the present value of the estimated future cash flows from the asset or group of assets discounted at the original effective interest rate of the asset. 
 

Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP)

The Santander UK group’s own assessment of its regulatory capital requirements, as part of CRD IV. It takes into account the regulatory and commercial environment in which the Santander UK group operates, the Santander UK group’s Risk Appetite, the management strategy for each of the Santander UK group’s material risks and the impact of appropriate adverse scenarios and stresses on the Santander UK group’s capital requirements.
 

Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process (ILAAP)

The Santander UK group’s own assessment of the prudent level of liquidity that is consistent with the Santander UK group’s LRA. It documents and demonstrates the Santander UK group’s overall liquidity adequacy - an appropriate level of liquid resources, a prudent funding profile and comprehensive management and control of liquidity and funding risks.
 

Internal ratings-based approach (IRB)

The Santander UK group's method, under the CRD IV framework, for calculating credit risk capital requirements using the Santander UK group’s internal Probability of Default models but with supervisory estimates of Loss Given Default and conversion factors for the calculation of Exposure at Default.
 

Investment grade

A debt security, treasury bill or similar instrument with a credit rating measured by external agencies of AAA to BBB.
 

ISDA Master agreement

Standardised contract developed by ISDA (International Swaps and Derivatives Association) used as an umbrella under which bilateral derivatives contracts are entered into.
 

 L

 

Lending to corporates

The sum of our Business banking, Commercial Banking and Global Corporate Banking loan balances. 
 

Level 1

The fair value of these financial instruments is based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in an active market that the Santander UK group has the ability to access at the measurement date. 
 

Level 2

The fair value of these financial instruments is based on quoted prices in markets that are not active or quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, recent market transactions, inputs other than quoted market prices for the asset or liability that are observable either directly or indirectly for substantially the full term, and inputs to valuation techniques that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data through correlation or other statistical means for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
 

Level 3

The fair value of these financial instruments is based on inputs to the pricing or valuation techniques that are significant to the overall fair value measurement of the asset or liability are unobservable.
 

Liquid assets coverage of wholesale funding of less than one year

LCR eligible liquidity pool divided by wholesale funding with a residual maturity of less than one year.

Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR)

The LCR is intended to ensure that a bank maintains an adequate level of unencumbered, high quality liquid assets which can be used to offset the net cash outflows the bank could encounter under a short-term significant liquidity stress scenario.
 

LCR eligible liquidity pool

Assets eligible for inclusion in the LCR as high quality liquid assets. The LCR eligible liquidity pool also covers both Pillar 1 and Pillar 2 risks.
 

Loan loss rate

Defined as a rolling twelve months impairment charge on loans and advances divided by average loans and advances.
 

Loan-to-deposit ratio (LDR)

LDR is calculated as loans and advances to customers (excluding reverse repos) divided by deposits by customers (excluding repos).
 

Loan to value ratio (LTV)

The amount of a first mortgage charge as a percentage of the total appraised value of real property. The LTV ratio is used in determining the appropriate level of risk for the loan and therefore the price of the loan to the borrower. LTV ratios may be expressed in a number of ways, including origination LTV and indexed LTV.
 

Loss Given Default (LGD)

The fraction of Exposure at Default that will not be recovered following default. LGD comprises the actual loss (the part that is not recovered), together with the economic costs associated with the recovery process.
 

Loyal retail customers

Primary banking current account customers who hold an additional product. 
 

Loyal SME and corporate customers

Santander Business Banking customers, managed under Retail Banking, who have three month average Credit Turnover of at least £1,000 across their Banking accounts. Corporate customers, who have at least three products and, for those in the trade business, must also have a current account with a minimum activity threshold specific to their customer segment.
 

 M

 

Master netting agreement

An industry standard agreement which facilitates netting of transactions (such as financial assets and liabilities including derivatives) in jurisdictions where netting agreements are recognised and have legal force. The netting arrangements do not generally result in an offset of balance sheet assets and liabilities for accounting purposes, as transactions are usually settled on a gross basis. 
 

Medium-Term Funding (MTF)

Shown at a sterling equivalent value. Consists of senior debt issuance, asset-backed issuance (including securitisation and covered bond issuance) and structured issuance (including firm financing repurchase agreements). MTF excludes any collateral received from the Bank of England’s Funding for Lending Scheme (FLS) or Term Funding Scheme (TFS).
 

Medium-Term Notes (MTNs)

Corporate notes (or debt securities) continuously offered by a company to investors through a dealer. Investors can choose from differing maturities, ranging from nine months to 30 years. They can be issued on a fixed or floating coupon basis or with an exotic coupon; with a fixed maturity date (non-callable) or with embedded call or put options or early repayment triggers. MTNs are most generally issued as senior, unsecured debt.
 

Mortgages

Refers to residential retail mortgages only and excludes social housing and commercial mortgage assets.
 

Mortgage-Backed Securities (MBS)

Securities that represent interests in groups of mortgages, which may be on residential or commercial properties. Investors in these securities have the right to cash received from future mortgage payments (interest and/or principal). When the MBS references mortgages with different risk profiles, the MBS is classified according to the highest risk class.
 

Mortgage retention

The proportion of customers with a maturing mortgage that remain with Santander. Applied to mortgages four months post maturity and is calculated as a twelve-month average of retention rates.
 

 N

 

n.m.

Not meaningful when the change is above 100%.
 

Net fee and commission income

Fee and commission income minus other fees paid that are not an integral part of the effective interest rate. For retail and corporate products, fee and commission income consists principally of collection services fees, commission on foreign currencies, commission and other fees received from retailers for processing credit card transactions, fees received from other credit card issuers for providing cash advances for their customers through the Santander UK group’s branch and ATM networks, annual fees payable by credit card holders and fees for non-banking financial products.
 

Net interest income

The difference between interest received on assets and interest paid on liabilities.
 

Net interest margin (NIM)

Net interest income as a percentage of average interest-earning assets.
 

Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR)

The ratio of available stable funding resources to stable funding requirements over a one year time horizon, assuming a stressed scenario. The Basel III rules require this ratio to be over 100%.
 

Non-performing loans (NPLs)

Loans and advances are classified as non-performing typically when the counterparty fails to make payments when contractually due for three months or longer, although there can be additional qualifying criteria depending upon the business segment and product. For additional information on the definition of NPLs, see ‘Santander UK Group Level - Credit risk management – risk measurement and control’ in the Risk review section of the Annual Report.
 

NPL ratio

NPLs as a percentage of loans and advances to customers.
 

 O

 

Other Retail Products

Other Retail products include Cater Allen, cahoot and crown dependencies (Jersey branch and Isle of Man). 
 

Over the counter (OTC) derivatives

Contracts that are traded (and privately negotiated) directly between two parties, without going through an exchange or other intermediary. They offer flexibility because, unlike standardised exchange-traded products, they can be tailored to fit specific needs.
 

Own credit

The effect of the Santander UK group’s own credit standing on the fair value of financial liabilities.
 

 P

 

Past due

A financial asset such as a loan is past due when the counterparty has failed to make a payment when contractually due.
 

People Supported

People supported through our charity partnerships and leading Explorer, Transformer and Changemaker programmes. Employee volunteer activities are organised through our flagship Discovery Project programme, the Santander Foundation and Santander Universities. 
 

Pillar 2

The part of the CRD IV Accord which sets out the process by which a bank should review its overall capital adequacy and the processes under which the supervisors evaluate how well financial institutions are assessing their risks and take appropriate actions in response to the assessments. 
 

Pillar 3

The part of the CRD IV Accord which sets out the disclosure requirements for firms to publish details of their risks, capital and risk management. The aims are greater transparency and strengthening market discipline.
 

Potential problem loans

Loans other than non-accrual loans, accruing loans which are contractually overdue 90 days or more as to principal or interest and troubled debt restructurings where known information about possible credit problems of the borrower causes management to have serious doubts about the borrower's ability to meet the loan's repayment terms.
 

Primary banking customers

Adult Banking Customers who have a three month average credit turnover of at least £500 and set up a minimum of two Direct Debits (one paid out in the last three months) or at least one Standing Order (paid out in the last three months). Student Banking Customers who have a twelve month average credit turnover of at least £500 and as a minimum three active Debit Card transactions in the last month.
 

Prime/prime mortgage loans

A US description for mortgages granted to the most creditworthy category of borrowers.
 

Private customers
 

Customers who have investments or savings of over £500,000 or a gross annual income in excess of £250,000.
 

Private equity investments

Equity holdings in operating companies not quoted on a public exchange.
 

Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA)

The UK financial services regulator formed as one of the successors to the FSA. The PRA is part of the Bank of England and is responsible for the prudential regulation and supervision of banks, building societies, credit unions, insurers and major investment firms. It sets standards and supervises financial institutions at the level of the individual firm.
 

 R 

 

Regulatory capital

The amount of capital that the Santander UK group holds, determined in accordance with rules established by the UK PRA for the consolidated Santander UK group and by local regulators for individual Santander UK group companies.
 

Repurchase agreement (Repo)

In a sale and repurchase agreement one party, the seller, sells a financial asset to another party, the buyer, under commitments to reacquire the asset at a later date. The buyer at the same time agrees to resell the asset at the same later date. From the seller's perspective such agreements are securities sold under repurchase agreements (repos) and from the buyer's securities purchased under commitments to resell (reverse repos).
 

Residential Mortgage-Backed Securities (RMBS)

Securities that represent interests in a group of residential mortgages. Investors in these securities have the right to cash received from future mortgage payments (interest and/or principal).
 

Retail customer satisfaction

Measured through the Financial Research Survey (FRS), a monthly personal finance survey of around 5,000 consumers prepared by the independent market research agency, GfK. The ‘Overall Satisfaction’ score refers to proportion of extremely and very satisfied customers across mortgages, savings, main current accounts, home insurance, UPLs and credit cards, based on a weighting of those products calculated to reflect the average product distribution across Santander UK and competitor brands. 
 

Retail deposit spread

Retail Banking customer deposit spreads against the relevant swap rate or LIBOR. Retail Banking customer deposits include savings and bank accounts for personal and business banking customers.
 

Retail IRB approach

The Santander UK group's internal method of calculating credit risk capital requirements for its key retail portfolios. The FSA approved the Santander UK group's application of the Retail IRB approach to the Santander UK group’s credit portfolios with effect from 1 January 2008.
 

Retail loans

Loans to individuals rather than institutions, including residential mortgage lending and banking and consumer credit.
 

Return on average tangible equity (RoTE)

The profit after tax attributable to equity holders of the parent, divided by average shareholders’ equity less non-controlling interests, other equity instruments and average goodwill and other intangible assets. 
 

Risk appetite

The level of risk (types and quantum) that the Santander UK group is willing to accept (or not accept) to safeguard the interests of shareholders whilst achieving business objectives.
 

Risk-weighted assets (RWA)

A measure of a bank’s assets adjusted for their associated risks. Risk weightings are established in accordance with the Basel Capital Accord as implemented by the PRA.
 

 S

 

Santander UK

Refers to Santander UK Group Holdings plc and its subsidiaries.
 

Securitisation

 A process by which a group of assets, usually loans, are aggregated into a pool, which is used to back the issuance of new securities. A company sells assets to a structured entity which then issues securities backed by the assets, based on their value. This allows the credit quality of the assets to be separated from the credit rating of the original company and transfers risk to external investors. Assets used in securitisations include mortgages to create mortgage-backed securities. Santander UK has established securitisation structures as part of its funding and capital management activities. 
 

Select customers

Customers who have a Select Current Account and pay their main income of at least £5,000 per month into their Select Current Account or keep £75,000 in any Santander investment(s), savings or current account. 
 

Sovereign exposures
 

Exposures to local and central governments, and government guaranteed counterparties.
 

Standardised approach

In relation to credit risk, a method for calculating credit risk capital requirements under CRD IV, using External Credit Assessment Institutions ratings and supervisory risk weights. The Standardised approach is less risk-sensitive than IRB (see 'IRB' above). In relation to operational risk, a method of calculating the operational capital requirement under CRD IV, by the application of a supervisory defined percentage charge to the gross income of eight specified business lines.
 

Stress testing

Stress testing is a management tool that facilitates a forward looking perspective on risk management, strategic planning, capital, and liquidity and funding planning.
 

Structured entity

An entity that has been designed so that voting or similar rights are not the dominant factor in deciding who controls the entity, such as when any voting rights relate to administrative tasks only and the relevant activities are directed by means of contractual arrangements. 
 

Structured finance/notes

An entity that has been designed so that voting or similar rights are not the dominant factor in deciding who controls the entity, such as when any voting rights relate to administrative tasks only and the relevant activities are directed by means of contractual arrangements. 
 

Subordinated liabilities

Liabilities which, in the event of insolvency or liquidation of the issuer, are subordinated to the claims of depositors and other creditors of the issuer.
 

Sub-prime

Loans to borrowers typically having weakened credit histories that include payment delinquencies and potentially more severe problems such as court judgements and bankruptcies. They may also display reduced repayment capacity as measured by credit scores, high debt-to-income ratios, or other criteria indicating heightened risk of default. 
 

Supranational

An international organisation where member states transcend national boundaries or interests to share in decision-making and vote on issues relating to the organisation's geographical focus. 
 

SVR

Standard Variable Rate for mortgages.
 

 T

 

Tier 1 capital

A measure of a bank's financial strength defined by the PRA. It captures Core Tier 1 capital plus other Tier 1 securities in issue, but is subject to a deduction in respect of material holdings in financial companies.
 

Tier 1 capital ratio

The ratio expresses Tier 1 capital as a percentage of risk weighted assets.
 

Tier 2 capital

Defined by the PRA. Broadly, it includes qualifying subordinated debt and other Tier 2 securities in issue, eligible collective impairment allowances, unrealised available for sale equity gains and revaluation reserves. It is subject to deductions relating to the excess of expected loss over regulatory impairment allowance, securitisation positions and material holdings in financial companies.
 

Total wholesale funding

Comprises the sum of all outstanding debt securities, structured issuance (including firm financing repurchase agreements), subordinated debt and capital issuance, TFS and non-customer deposits. Total wholesale funding excludes any collateral received as part of the FLS.
 

Trading book

Positions in financial instruments held either with trading intent or in order to hedge other elements of the trading book, which must be free of restrictive covenants on their tradability or ability to be hedged.
 

Troubled debt restructurings

A US description for restructuring a debt whereby the creditor for economic or legal reasons related to a debtor’s financial difficulties grants a concession to the debtor that it would not otherwise consider.
 

 U
 

 
 

UK leverage ratio

CRD IV end-point Tier 1 capital divided by exposures as defined by the European Commission Delegated Regulation 2015/62 of October 2014. In July 2016, the definition was amended to exclude from the calculation for total exposure those assets held against central banks that are matched by deposits in the same currency and of equal or longer maturity. 
 

 V

 

Value at Risk (VaR)

An estimate of the potential loss which might arise from market movements under normal market conditions, if the current positions were to be held unchanged for one business day, measured to a confidence level.
 

 W

 

Wholesale funding with a residual maturity of less than one year

Wholesale funding which has a residual maturity of less than one year at the balance sheet date.
 

Write-down

After an advance has been identified as impaired and is subject to an impairment allowance, the stage may be reached whereby it is concluded that there is no realistic prospect of further recovery. Write-downs will occur when, and to the extent that, the whole or part of a debt is considered irrecoverable.
 

Wrong-way risk

An aggravated form of concentration risk and arises when there is an adverse correlation between the counterparty’s probability of default and the mark-to-market value of the underlying transaction.
 

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